在 0.3 版本加入.
Applications need some kind of configuration. There are different things you might want to change. Like toggling debug mode, the secret key and a lot of very similar things.
The way Flask is designed usually requires the configuration to be available when the application starts up. You can either hardcode the configuration in the code which for many small applications is not actually that bad, but there are better ways.
Independent of how you load your config, there is a config object
available which holds the loaded configuration values:
config attribute of the
object. This is the place where Flask itself puts certain configuration
values and also where extensions can put their configuration values. But
this is also where you can have your own configuration.
config is actually a subclass of a dictionary and
can be modified just like any dictionary:
app = Flask(__name__)
app.config['DEBUG'] = True
Certain configuration values are also forwarded to the
Flask object so that you can read and write them from
app.debug = True
To update multiple keys at once you can use the
Builtin Configuration Values¶
The following configuration values are used internally by Flask:
enable/disable debug mode
enable/disable testing mode
the secret key
the name of the session cookie
the lifetime of a permanent session as
Configuring from Files¶
Configuration becomes more useful if you can configure from a file. And ideally that file would be outside of the actual application package that you can install the package with distribute (Deploying with Distribute) and still modify that file afterwards.
So a common pattern is this:
app = Flask(__name__)
What this does is first loading the configuration from the
yourapplication.default_settings module and then overrides the values
with the contents of the file the
environment variable points to. This environment variable can be set on
Linux or OS X with the export command in the shell before starting the
$ export YOURAPPLICATION_SETTINGS=/path/to/settings.cfg
$ python run-app.py
* Running on http://127.0.0.1:5000/
* Restarting with reloader...
On Windows systems use the set builtin instead:
The configuration files themselves are actual Python files. Only values in uppercase are actually stored in the config object later on. So make sure to use uppercase letters for your config keys.
Here an example configuration file:
DEBUG = False
SECRET_KEY = '?\xbf,\xb4\x8d\xa3"<\x9c\xb0@\x0f5\xab,w\xee\x8d$0\x13\x8b83'
Make sure to load the configuration very early on so that extensions have
the ability to access the configuration when starting up. There are other
methods on the config object as well to load from individual files. For a
complete reference, read the
Configuration Best Practices¶
The downside with the approach mentioned earlier is that it makes testing a little harder. There is no one 100% solution for this problem in general, but there are a couple of things you can do to improve that experience:
create your application in a function and register modules on it. That way you can create multiple instances of your application with different configurations attached which makes unittesting a lot easier. You can use this to pass in configuration as needed.
Do not write code that needs the configuration at import time. If you limit yourself to request-only accesses to the configuration you can reconfigure the object later on as needed.